Parenthetical referencing is also known as Harvard referencing or Harvard format for dummies. Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies is a citation style in which partial citations are enclosed within parenthesis, and are written in the text either within or after sentence. Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies is accompanied by a full alphabetized list of citations in the last section, which is the title reference list, references end text citations, or works cited. Parenthetical referencing can be used in footnote citation in the Vancouver system. Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies are used in different disciplines like biochemistry, biology, environmental economics, health sciences, philosophy, social policy and social work, theatre film and television, politics, etc.
Why Harvard Referencing
Citing and referencing of sources is a critical aspect of academic writing. Referencing accurately and consistently is an important part of ensuring the distinction between the words and ideas of others in the research paper.
In-text citation: The in-text Harvard citation in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies is included in the body of the text. Harvard in-text citation directly allows the reader to get an idea where a piece of information or quotation is taken from. In-text citation in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies helps the readers to match the sources cited in the text to the full reference presented in the bibliography or reference list where the full details of the publication are present.
Citing source material in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies in the research paper is beneficial to support the arguments. However, it should be kept in mind when citing sources material in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies to have relevant references, which are an integral part of the argument that one discusses in the research paper. In-text citation in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies are relevant where:
- It includes data from the tables, statistics, or diagrams.
- Describing or discussing a theory or model of a particular writer.
- Adding credibility to the argument by quoting the idea of another author.
- Paraphrasing and summarizing information which is not common knowledge.
What is Harvard format
Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies style originated at Harvard University and has been adopted by many individual institutions. There is no set manual on Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies. Harvard format or Harvard citation is a style for citing sources, the name of the author, and the date of the publication in the text within brackets, which is the in the text Harvard citation. A list of complete bibliographic details is given and presented at the end listed in alphabetical order. There are two types in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies.
The origin of Harvard referencing is attributed to Edward Lauren Mark, who was a professor of anatomy and the director of the zoological laboratory at Harvard University. Therefore Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies is a standard format for acknowledging information sources in a research paper or academic writing. When writing a research paper or an assignment, it requires an individual to find and use pieces of information. Therefore, one is expected to mention all the sources of information and ideas included in the writing.
Answering the question of why to reference, it becomes important to inform the readers that one has taken references from the experts and from the reliable sources that help in supporting and giving credibility to the topic. The referencing in the assignments:
- Demonstrates the good research practice
- Demonstrate the range of approaches in ideas that one has found in thought about.
- Acknowledges identifying from where ideas have come from.
- Informing the readers where they can look for the sources which one has used in the research paper or the assignment.
- Harvard citation also helps in avoiding plagiarism. It provides a reference in presenting someone else’s idea from where it has been taken from. Plagiarism can be unintentional, but the consequences can be serious; therefore, accurate Harvard citation and referencing help an individual to avoid such issues.
General guidelines in Harvard Format for Dummies
- The page numbers are to be aligned on the top right side of the page.
- The papers are required to be written in the font style Times New Roman and font size 12 pt. The spacing between a line and a paragraph in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard citations should be 1.5. The margins should be 1 inch from all sides, and the alignment for the paper is required to be justified.
- A general Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies comprises three parts: the title page, the main body, and the reference list
Harvard for Dummies Title Page
- Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies is very specific and organized. It has a particular title page with the following
- The title of the paper is centered and halfway down and is written in capital letters.
- After the title, the name of the author is written in small letters.
- After the name of the author, the name of the class is written.
- The next line after the author’s name tells the name of the university or the college.
- After the name of the school or the university, the date is written.
- The cover page of Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies presents all the information that one needs to know about the author in question. One of the key points when writing Howard format for dummies or Howard for dummies is that the title should be right justified.
The Main Body
In Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies, the paragraphs are highly structured. The primary section of the article should be captivating and entertaining, beginning with a lively quotation or an interesting fact which helps in shedding light on the research article on the essay.
The introduction should have a thesis statement, which is the main idea of the sentence and summary of what the body entails. The first sentence of the body should inform the readers what the paragraph is discussing with supporting facts. The supporting sentences can be quotations facts or analysis. The last part of the paragraph concludes with the sentence, which summarizes what the paragraphs were all about and then moves into the next section to have a smooth transition. Writing articles in Harvard format the transitions within paragraphs should be interconnected. A paragraph in Harvard format for dummies or Harvard for dummies has three parts, which are the topic sentence, the supporting detail, and the closing sentence.
The conclusion of the research article should be written with high accuracy. It should reinstate the thesis statement and remind the readers what the research paper has proved or theorized. The conclusion should also emphasize the key points that have been discussed throughout the whole research paper to encourage remembrance of the essential points. Moreover, it should also include the main points and should end with a powerful message which leads to a call of action.
The conclusion is followed by the reference section, which includes the reference list, and the page which is known as the reference page.
The reference page has Harvard citation referencing, which contains the following:
- Book authors last name and first initial
- Year of publication
- Title of the book in capitalized letters
- City of the publication: publisher
Harvard Citations in Paper
In an article, one can use in-text Harvard citations. In relation to in-text Harvard citation, it includes the author’s name and the first initial along with the year of publication and page number where information appears. Harvard citation for each factor is provided, and if not provided, becomes a serious offense. Harvard citation uses the standard font, such as with 12 pt. font. Fancy fonts are not allowed in Harvard citation format as it is used in writing research and academic papers.
Moreover, the Harvard citation should be double spaced. The titles of newspapers, journals, books, or websites should be italicized in the Harvard citation format. The poems and short stories should be written in quotation marks. It helps the readers to read quickly and understand where the sources have been taken from, providing credibility to the assignment or the research paper.
Advantages of Harvard Format
- The principal advantage is the convenience in the referencing for both the readers and the author. It eliminates the cumbersome process of footnote insertion, which is rather complicated.
- Harvard citation or Harvard format helps the professors and the readers to quickly verify the accuracy and the academic strength of a research paper. When sources are referenced within a text, it provides credibility to the research paper and provides immediate clues.
- Harvard citation or Harvard format eliminates the confusion which arises when citation footnotes are paired with footnotes having additional factual information about the text. By adding Harvard citations in-text, it helps the authors to include the informational footnotes uncluttered by citations.